ï»¿Foote-Smith, Elizabeth, and Lydia Bayne. 1991. Joan of Arc.Epilepsia 32 (6): 810–15. WHILE FRANK MINYARD had commissioned many forensic reports on the Memorial dead, he lacked the views of an ethicist, someone who could situate the alleged acts of the health professionals in a panorama of history, philosophy, law, and ever-changing societal norms. This was a perspective Minyard wanted, even though his job by law was merely to decide whether the deaths were technically homicides—caused by human intervention. In advance of a grand jury, he was doing his own unnecessary, unbidden—but, he felt, vital—investigation. against me. A voice in my head told me that this was true, cutting through the jumble in my mind with its coldly rational sound. In 1944, Ancel Keys and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota set out to replicate Benedict’s experiment, although with more restrictive diets and for a greater duration. Their goal was to reproduce and then study the physiological and psychological effects of starvation of the kind that Allied troops would likely confront throughout Europe as the continent was liberated. Thirty-two young male conscientious objectors would serve as “guinea pigs,” the phrase Keys used in this context. These volunteers would eventually spend twenty-four weeks on a “semi-starvation diet,” followed by another twelve to twenty weeks of rehabilitation.