Ohlson then tested her calorie-restricted version of Pennington’s diet on seven women who ranged from mildly overweight to obese. These women followed the diet for sixteen weeks and lost between nineteen and thirty-seven pounds. In a comparison of the low-fat diet of twelve hundred calories with the carbohydrate-restricted diet of fourteen to fifteen hundredcalories, the former resulted in an average weight loss of a half-pound a week, whereas the latter diet, higher in calories, induced an average weight loss of almost three pounds weekly. “Without exception, the low-carbohydrate reducing diet resulted in satisfactory weight losses,” Ohlson wrote. “The subjects reported a feeling of well-being and satisfaction. Hunger between meals was not a problem.” 25. I have written at much greater length about musical hallucinations (as well as intrusive musical imagery, or“earworms”) in my HUNGER Those early weight-loss diets were meant to eliminate fat tissue while preserving muscle or lean-tissue mass. The protein content of the diet would be maximized and calories reduced. Only a minimal amount of carbohydrates and added fats—butter and oils—would be allowed in the diet, because these were considered the nonessential, i.e., nonprotein, elements. When physicians from the Stanford University School of Medicine described the diet they prescribed for obesity in 1943, it was effectively identical to the diet prescribed at Harvard Medical School and described in 1948, at Children’s Memorial Hospital in Chicago in 1950, and at Cornell Medical School and New York Hospital in 1952. According to the Chicago clinicians, the “general rules” of a successful reducing diet were as follows:

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